Here are the standards related to vocabulary:
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.9-10.4 Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language evokes a sense of time and place; how it sets a formal or informal tone).
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.9-10.4 Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language of a court opinion differs from that of a newspaper).
- CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.9-10.4 Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grades 9–10 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
- CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.9-10.4a Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
- CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.9-10.4b Identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different meanings or parts of speech (e.g., analyze, analysis, analytical; advocate, advocacy).
- CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.9-10.4c Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning, its part of speech, or its etymology.
- CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.9-10.4d Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).
- CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.9-10.5 Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
- CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.9-10.5a Interpret figures of speech (e.g., euphemism, oxymoron) in context and analyze their role in the text.
- CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.9-10.5b Analyze nuances in the meaning of words with similar denotations.
- CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.9-10.6 Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.
What are our strategies?
1. Vocabulary Strategies Graphic: We created this graphic (with assistance from Standards Solutions) for each student. Every day we have the word of the day. A word is put on the board either in context, defined, or examples. Students use their strategies graphic to assist them in figuring out the denotation and connotation of each word.
2. We do activities where the students look at vocabulary patterns of changes or commonly confused words.
4. We have students brainstorm all of the possible words related to another word, and then as a group, we make a list based on connotation. For example: Love
And so on. This allows students to use a common word (love), and examine how connotation plays a large role in word choice and meaning.
5. We look at the evolution of language through newly added dictionary words, and words no longer in use (groovy, huh?).
6. And, yes, we are hitting them hard with grammar. Most of the mistakes in usage come from not understanding the part of speech. We are working to make this an every day activity for them so that they can quickly use a word correctly.